Kautzsch, Gesenius’ Hebrew
Grammar (translated by A. B. Cowley).
Jouon, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew
(translated and revised by T. Muraoka).
Blau, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew.
O. Lambdin, Introduction to
Davidson, The Analytical Hebrew and
J. J. Owens, Analytical Key to the Old Testament.
Gesenius, A Hebrew and English
Lexicon of the Old Testament (revised by F. Brown, S. R. Driver and C. A.
Briggs). Biblical verse index by B. Einspahr.
Kohler and W. Baumgartner, The
Hebrew and Aramaic
Lexicon of the Old Testament.
W. L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew
and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament
J. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament, (translated by David B. Green).
Hadashah le-Torah, Nevi‘im u-Khetuviin.
Onkeles (M. Aberbach and B. Grossfeld, Targum
Onkelos to Genesis).
M. Kasher, Torah Shelemah.
Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (ed.
Thackeray, Loeb Classical Library, Josephus
4, Book I i (lines 1-51)
Cf. T. W.
Franxman, Genesis and the ‘Jewish
Antiquities” of Flavius Josephus.
ben Isaac, Commentary on the Torah (A. Berliner; C. B. Chavel).
ben Meir, Commentary on the Torah (A. Bromberg).
ibn Ezra, Commentary on the Torah (A. Weiser; L. Prijs).
ben Nachman, Commentary on the Torah (C. B. Chavel).
Abarbanel, Commentary on the Torah.
ben Joseph, Commentary on Bereshit (Y. Qapah; M. Zucker).
Qimhi, Commentary on the Torah (M. Kammelherr).
Sforno, Be’ur la-Torah (Z. Gotlib).
Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book
of Genesis (tr. 1961). (Eric:
1 in English)
1 in English)
R. Driver, The Book of Genesis (12th
Gunkel, Genesis (Handkommentar
zum Alten Testament, 1901).
Jacob, The First Book of the Bible:
von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary (rev.
Skinner, A Critical and Exegetical
Commentary on Genesis (International Critical Commentary, 2nd ed., 1930)
Speiser, Genesis (Anchor
Bible, 1964). (5 Mbytes)
Wenham, Genesis 1-15 (Word
Westermann, Genesis 1-11: A
Commentary (tr. 1974).
J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern
Texts Relating to the Bible (2nd ed. + supplement 3rd ed.)
W. W. Hallo, The Context of Scripture
Dailey, Myths from Mesopotamia (1989).
Foster, Before the Muses (2nd
Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis (2nd
H. Hooke, Middle Eastern Mythology (1963).
N. Kramer, Sumerian Mythology (1961).
G. Lambert and A. R. Millard, Atra-hasis:
Story of the Flood.
Adar, The Book of Genesis: An
Introduction to the Biblical World.
S. Childs, Myth and Reality in the
Old Testament (2nd ed., 1962).
H. Frankfort, The Problem of Similarity in Ancient Near Eastern Religions.
R. H. Hess and D. T. Tsumura, I
Studied Inscriptions from Before
the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary
and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11 (1994).
Irvin, Mytharion: Comparison
from the Old Testament and the Ancient
G. Lambert, “Old Testament Mythology in its Ancient Near Eastern
Context,” in J. A. Emerton, ed., Congress
Volume: Jerusalem 1986 (Vetus Testamentum Supplemnent40 , 124-143.
N. M. Sarna, Understanding
D. T. Tsumura, The Earth and Waters in
Genesis 1 and 2.
Weinfeld, Genesis (Olam ha-Tanakh).
U. Cassuto, Sefer Bereshit u
Coats, Genesis with an Introduction
to Narrative Literature.
B. Doukhan, The Genesis Creation
Story: Its Literary Structure.
P. Fokkelman, Narrative Art in Genesis.
H. Green, The Unity of the Book of
M. Grintz, Yihudo ve-Qadmuto shel
Gunkel, The Legends of Genesis.
Habel, Literary Criticism of the Old
Leach, Genesis as Myth and Other
D. Miller, Jr., Genesis 1-11:
Studies in Structure and Theme.
B. Soloveitchik, Lonely Man of Faith (=Tradition 7  5-67).
Breuer, Pirqei Bereishit.
Medieval and Modern Commentaries
Sense of the Text
Elish: Epic of Creation
Story of the Flood
Kaufmann, “The Bible and Mythical Polytheism,” Journal
of Biblical Literature 70 (1951) 179-97.
J. Finkelstein, “Bible and Babel,” Commentary
1958, 43 1-44.
Hess & D. Tsumura, “Genesis and Ancient Near Eastern Stories of Creation
and the Flood: An Introduction,” I
from Before the Flood, pp. 27-57.
Biblical Creation Accounts:
Lower Textual Criticism:
(Eric: LXX Genesis 1-2)
(Eric: LXX Genesis 1 from Bible Windows)
(Eric: Guide to BHS Critical Apparatus)
Comparison of the Formulaic Structure of MT and LXX
Tov, Textual Criticism of the
Comparison of Chapter 1 and Chapter 2
Bloom, Modern Critical
Interpretation of Genesis (esp. R. Alter, “Composite Artistry P and J”).
Eric: See Modern Orthodox Jewish Thought, above.
1. Syntax: What are the
two positions regarding the syntactical relationship of the first verse to
the other verses in the chapter?
Check the dictionaries for the different meanings of the term
Check the concordances for an understanding of the syntactical usage of
the term רֵאשִׁית. Does it always
appear in the construct state or are there examples of it appearing in an
רֵאשִׁית is a construct, to what is it constructed in our verse?
What are the semantic implications of the two different syntactic
Lexicography: Does the term
בָּרָא have a special connotation?
Check the dictionaries for the meaning of the term
בָּרָא in each of the
stems (=binyanim) in which it occurs
Check the concordances for the different usages of the related terms: בָּרָא, ysr, ‘sh, by noting the direct objects of each of these verbal occurrences.
Lexicography: Determine the meaning of the following terms:
the commentaries, check dictionaries and concordances to see if you can further
clarify their meaning.
Grammar: Consult the biblical grammars to discuss the morphology of the
Grammar: consult the biblical dictionaries and grammars to note the
various meanings and usages of the particle כִּי in Biblical Hebrew. Determine the
syntactical relationship of the particle כִּי within the verse.
“The Particle כִּי,” Remembering all the way ...
Read: A. Schoors, “The Particle כִּי,” Remembering all the way ...: A collection of Old Testament studies published on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap in Nederland by B. Albrektson .et al., (Oudtestamentische studiën., 21) Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1981, 240-276
Read the short note by
J. Kugel, “The Adverbial Use of
KI TOB,” Journal of Biblical Literature 99/3
(1980) 433-35. Do you agree with his translation of the verse?
Lexicography: Consult the biblical dictionaries and concordances
to understand the various meanings of the action קרא.
Syntax: Note the change in the verbal sequence in this verse. What does
this syntactical change denote?
Semantics: What does the clause
denote? Read Stroes, “Does Day Begin in the Evening or in
the Morning,” Vetus Testamentum 16 (1966) 460-75. (Cassuto
on verses 6-8)
on verses 6-8)
Lexicography: Is the term
only as a cardinal number or does it also function as an ordinal number?
What does the term
First determine the basic semantic range of the verbal root
רָקִיעַ; then determine the morphological pattern of the noun and the
meaning of that nominal pattern (consult Jouon’s grammar, chapter 3 on noun
Is this conception of the creation of the heavens different from that
found in Psalms 104:2
What is the contextual problem raised by the verb
How is the problem answered by the commentaries?
What is the meaning of the expression
What does the term
What is the basic semantic root of the verb qwh?
Does this root have any homonyms? What nouns are associated with these
verbal roots? Is it possible to establish any semantic relationship between the
What is the morphological pattern of miqweh
and what meaning does this pattern impart?